Fanon, Frantz

   A revolutionary socialist activist and major theoretician of Third World liberation, Fanon was strongly influenced by Marxism, but both developed it and departed from it in his analysis of colonialism. Born in French colonial Martinique, he attended schools both there and in France. He volunteered to serve in the French army in 1944, and subsequently studied medicine and psychiatry at the University of Lyons in France. In 1953 he was made head of the psychiatric department at Blida-Joinville hospital in the French colony of Algeria. When the Algerian war of independence began in 1954 Fanon helped the rebels, gradually becoming more involved in the rebel cause. He resigned from his hospital post in 1956 and became editor of the Algerian National Front’s (FLN) newspaper. In 1960 he was appointed ambassador of the Algerian Provisional Government to Ghana. In the same year he was diagnosed with leukemia for which he was treated in the Soviet Union and the United States. He died in a hospital in Washington, D.C. in 1961 and was buried in Algeria.
   Fanon has through his writings and example been influential in the Third World and among black activists in the United States. His most important writings are Peau noire, masques blancs (Black Skin, White Masks, 1952), L’an V de la révolution algérienne (published in English under the title Studies in a Dying Colonialism, 1959), Les damnés de la terre (The Wretched of the Earth, 1961), and Pour la révolution africaine (For the African Revolution, 1964). Of these The Wretched of the Earth is the most famous, and notable for its advocacy of and emphasis on violence in the process of national liberation. In addition, Fanon portrayed the peasantry rather than the proletariat as the key revolutionary class, and saw psychological liberation as a fundamental part of national liberation.

Historical dictionary of Marxism. . 2014.

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  • Fanon, Frantz — ▪ West Indian psychoanalyst and philosopher in full  Frantz Omar Fanon   born 1925, Martinique died Dec. 6, 1961, Washington, D.C., U.S.       West Indian psychoanalyst and social philosopher, known for his theory that some neuroses are socially… …   Universalium

  • Fanon, Frantz — (1925 1961)    psychiatrist, political theorist    Frantz Fanon, whose analysis of colonialism places him among the leading revolutionary thinkers of the modern era, was born in Fort de France, Martinique. During World War II he served with the… …   France. A reference guide from Renaissance to the Present

  • Fanon, Frantz — (1925–1961) French psychologist and theorist of colonialism. Born in French Martinique, Fanon studied medicine and psychiatry in France after the Second World War. His Peau noire, masques blancs (1952, trs. as Black Skin, White Masks, 1967),… …   Philosophy dictionary

  • Fanon, Frantz — ► (1925 61) Sociólogo y escritor argelino. Su obra Los condenados de la tierra representa la base de una teoría de la descolonización. Autor de Sociología de una revolución …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Fanon, Frantz (Omar) — born 1925, Martinique died Dec. 6, 1961, Washington, D.C., U.S. West Indian psychoanalyst and social philosopher. He served in the French army in World War II, earned a medical degree, and became head of the psychiatric department of an Algerian… …   Universalium

  • Fanon, Frantz (Omar) — (1925, Martinica–6 dic. 1961, Washington, D.C., EE.UU.). Sicoanalista y filósofo social originario de las Indias Occidentales. Sirvió en el ejército francés en la segunda guerra mundial, se recibió de médico, y se convirtió en el jefe del… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • FANON (F.) — FANON FRANTZ (1925 1961) «C’est un Paraclet», a dit de lui Aimé Césaire. «Il y a des vies qui constituent des appels à vivre.» L’œuvre et le nom de Frantz Fanon, après avoir «appelé» l’engagement des existentialistes français dans les années qui… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • fanon — [ fanɔ̃ ] n. m. • XIIe « manipule »; frq. °fano « morceau d étoffe »; cf. all. Fahne « drapeau » 1 ♦ (1418) Chacun des deux pendants de la mitre d un évêque. (1678) Mar. Partie flottante d une voile carguée. 2 ♦ (1538) Cour …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Frantz Fanon — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Fanon. Frantz Fanon Nom de nai …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Fanon — ► sustantivo masculino INDUMENTARIA Y MODA, RELIGIÓN Prenda de vestir en forma de doble esclavina cerrada que lleva el papa sobre el alba en la misa pontifical. * * * fanón 1 m. Pliegue que tienen en el cuello el *carnero y el *buey. 2 Cir.… …   Enciclopedia Universal

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